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Donnish Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity

November 2015 Vol. 1(1), pp. 001-009

Copyright 2015 Donnish Journals




Original Research Paper


Role of Immuno-Endocrine Interactions in Tuberculosis


Jyothi Priya M1,2, Rajashekar M2 and Sumanlatha G1,2*

1Bhagwan Mahavir Medical Research Center, Hyderabad, India.
2Department of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India.

Corresponding Author's E-mail: sumanlathag@yahoo.com

Accepted 29th September, 2015.



Abstract


Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious and airborne disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) in human beings. Commonly, the host immune response (IR) controls Mtb replication, which ultimately depends on a fine balance between the pathogen persistence and the specific IR. Cell-mediated immunity plays a major role against TB infection. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are also relevant in IR and varies throughout the course of TB treatment and its relationship with immuno-endocrine mediators dealing with disease immunopathology. This chronic infection accompanied by prolonged cytokine production, which might affect the immuno-endocrine communication and favor the establishment of an adverse state. Cytokines released by activated immune cells subsequently lead to hormonal secretion from the hypothalamic pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) or the hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, which regulates immune response against the pathogen and the control of the chronic inflammation induced during infection. If the immune response fails to eradicate the pathogen, a chronic state of inflammation is established. Generally, in TB infection, immuno-endocrine alterations changes the interleukin-6, cortisol, estradiol, prolactin and thyroid hormone concentrations in plasma. Moreover, it also changes the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β) production by lymphoid cells. The present review focuses on the immuno-endocrine interactions that play a detrimental role during TB infection which might affect the control of tissue damage and the protective immune responses.

Keywords: Immune Response, Immune-endocrine mediators, HPA axis, Immuno-endocrine interaction, Chronic inflammation.

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Cite This Article:

Jyothi Priya M, Rajashekar M and Sumanlatha G. Role of Immuno-Endocrine Interactions in Tuberculosis. Donnish Journal of Infectious Diseases and Immunity 1(1) 2015 pp. 001-009.


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