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Donnish Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences

April 2015 Vol. 2(3), pp. 047-051

Copyright 2015 Donnish Journals




Original Research Paper


Primary Sources of Salmonella Species in Poultry Production Settings in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria


1Nchawa Yangkam Yhiler and 1,2Bassey Enya Bassey*

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Medical Science, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria.
2World Health Organization, UN House, Plot 617/618, Central Area District, FCT, Abuja, Nigeria.

Corresponding Author E-mail: email:bassey69@yahoo.com

Accepted 7th April, 2015.



Abstract


Background: The poultry production settings have been frequently revealed as a major reservoir for Salmonella species. Salmonellosis is endemic in many countries, including Nigeria, where the poultry production industry is rapidly increasing. This study was designed to determine the gateways of entry of Salmonella into the poultry production setting so as to suggest measures to curb the introduction and maintenance of these organisms into the poultry production systems. Methods: Between the period of August 2013 and May 2014, 120 poultry feed samples were collected from commercial feed outlets, 120 water samples from poultry water storage tanks, 90 water samples from primary water sources (bore hole and pipe borne), 120 samples from both eggshell and the internal egg contents and 180 samples from day-old chicks within the poultry production settings in Calabar. Samples were collected aseptically and bacteriological analysis for the presence of Salmonella was performed according to the ISO 6579:2002 including standard bacteriological, biochemical and serologic techniques. The Chi-square parameter was used to determine the level of significance at 95% confidence level. Results: The rate of recovery of Salmonella species from the sources of poultry feed from commercial outlets, poultry water storage tanks and water from Primary water sources (bore hole and pipe borne) were respectively 7.5%, 11.7% and 3.3%. However, there was no statistical significant difference (P-value = 0.084) in the rate of recovery of Salmonella species from these sources, hence implicating these sources as primary routes for the entry of Salmonella species into the poultry production setting. There was also no statistical significant difference in the rate of recovery of Salmonella species from eggs and day-old chicks suggesting that the source of infection of day-old chick is from the incubation of contaminated eggs. Conclusion: The results of this study also suggest a relationship between eggshell contamination and internal egg content contamination as well as the contamination of the egg contents even before egg formation.

Keywords: Primary-sources, Salmonellosis, Eggshell-contamination, Internal-egg-content contamination.

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Cite This Article:

Nchawa Yangkam Yhiler and Bassey Enya Bassey. Primary Sources of Salmonella Species in Poultry Production Settings in Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria. Donnish Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 2(3) 2015 pp. 047-051.


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